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.A ?ROCI6S IIODEL OI MORPEOLOGY AND IEXICON

Tls paf 15 y@ h.vs viiloed a st €dily grcwing inbei ib noQhology and lo!im!. Dui4 tho sonmtiy6 hcy-&ys morpLol ogy 'E nGdy rcihed to lhonoloAy *hil6 ths l6xico wa Bm j @ ' @ r r ' 1 ' n d ? o r i d i d . r ' r

€ducibiliiy or norphold3X snd ati.ibut no$ stru.tu€ rnd a nc etim rolo to ihs lsxi6n.

S€vonl coelnhoroivo thocid or nore &pcifi. nodels h&m bon plop*il for dsdibing the sinctus dd jntoryldy ol norphology and leximn. Na.y ol theo dppb&ho6 @ puroly autdonou kcout3 of (partu of) tho lan$,go sysbn in ths s'ususu or cho@kyan @rcq Sloh m th6 nrtua.l, EMioii.rny baed noDhol oF/ of MllEtuE (103r), Dlbshtr (r03r), old wDid (r$a), a won s fto roxicd norphology or nPmru (rt32) ,nd drt@. BJ d-r n.r on. h "6

k.iion b prop€rii* of lsgu,e! n66 3dch a tho proe$ing of mrit fom iok* or ils inlori of fsqnor) ol occumnm.

OtLcr approehs m oukpok nty bshNiord Tliso stru tho pnmcy of bohevio.al &b oyd eutononoa fh6oljzins, nt l€!

@ € san'ng.po.1!olp€y"bolnsuisriB L1d p"y holo€J orl 4xrs6 Ee6 lslorg o.s. Boveml nodeb of turihe@gnirion snch e Nor ro! 3 (100e) losos6n Eodsl, FoE]E s OeE rtjvo secll Doei, uil fho cohon nod6t or 4d-ivGoN rnil ftrm (e.s. rmo, rgsl). Th6o eo&ls es bsd on ssnuino oxp6rinehbl F.rk .nil hars liiilo in @nnon viih ant nomas aorphology

Tri.d, on6 6oy fry to integob snlononons $aly8is !.il !s.

lornrnB &6. A ldin6nt oxmple i! ByB.r &nit Smtrs's (Is32) noryhologicsl gchenrb Ehich rE lsed pa.tly on autonomou8 ua,l}€is, Fiily on ?rvcholingni6iic slidon€. The Bqhenat& aF .lrineil to bo unita uscd in acc*ing ihe loricon.

0165 1ao11$1a0te Mz t 2.

@ NM Pe^d' 'k-Ew;

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rD rhj3 p8p.r, so sh&ll olploE ih6 vi,tJiriiy of:n ini€sr&tcd conperene pe orman@ noilel of morprolosT 3n,t r*icon. Thes

&E seyelll Eaom fof noi ne.* i\ &.wing sn i.ittul shict b€i{e.n subrobdB linsnisrics md psJeho- linguisii.s. coNidor rho folo{ing i{o,xio@ rh.r ncr lingunk smly Bub&rjb6 to (rt least in iheoiy):

lrngugs *irk r nerily in th. slDton node.

Inowledgs of 3 rr.gug6 i6 of iho &ld i,, .airor rh&n fho

ln R* noro than lb !6rvi@ tu to bo prid to fl,es s:ioN, ihs pns,birij or-n i{"r;,dEd r!"o"J shoJd h€ ut". ynoBtr. Tf

one seme nore "concrete" than nosr anhnonoa !heon$, bft rbo @ro . shslr.cr' rhm & crudo ldtins ol lFdy-medo ' foms.

Linsnisiic ontolosJ reeins liebry dulidic il dubnonos 8y#n ,inguisiie fd neiiornane-o ontcd !€ycholingututiG &s dtulind Tr,s dmrisn ft.specirry p6EpicuoE if ab€racr nsnd r*liiy is arhibui€d io & purly atrbnonous rhedry. ,Ihe dnrolosiql altcmsiive i3 emclenib( rhich vi6ss ths Denh.l 3tuibur€ ol tun a3 hishly orainiail grdu&l ext€miom ol net€.isl tisus. This opporoh io iho body-nind rrohlon at lut de mt prcludo tho 6xkhn.6 or 3 enooih r,to4@ rEttren nenr&l tnoyleds€ Dnil rho pmess }} vlich it tu iNoked ih rsal.iino pofolnrne.

Tn8 iradiiional duali8iic ontology obo ml{e6 ii ldd io o$run whr rhao aE propoliGs of rho lrngues sysr€n rhlr ,s 6h{€d by ih6 phyricd jhpl6nenbtion or iha l&n$rgo pDcNhg nsclmi€N Gr LNDBrcN 833) Aho nok fhdt iho 6yalu ion ptutlod 6Bt loinulat.d bJ ClorsRa &.m ubd6.id'tr6 in purery Nronontu i.rm. Conpriibilitr Fith pmNing dri& Es.ves s sn erhns,l oterion for .hmins barreen altmiivo iheoii6.

The r&eni !trpc! do4 not pntcnd to solvc ihco higuy contro- vsB l isue. Ior lhs rsons cit€d, Fc Be ir a inpo rnt to lftd onr vheind inbgried rhmis oE f@ibte, i.o. Fherhor sucb &

lhsorr ner pmve barh ringuicric y inbeiiDg and @nlarihls viih proe$ing d&r&. Ir j6 nor or

ejationofrut nodole lingubtiB a sucb. TIN Eould, of coms, b6 ianonds linen;tic ilqdiphon.

ws r*dily conede trl3, linguirric prrnonenr nry r,e .n4zed fo.

(4)

diltmbt pup(s and on ditroEnf lovok or ol€t!trction ileihor do vo vish to orgus th&t lBltholinguidi€ should no.sarilt bo fomilcd on ,ub.onds Ungu6ti@, omr if tlm cdinly rB tr.ts ebblshed by autonoDou notho& ih* etl Isol;bt€

Fycholingnisiic thorie sloult acount for. r puryortirg t ho cmc&l rhsoris, tboy ghodil ..9. noi lra ,t Ynridnco viih the vsrjcty of irTologi.!,] lertEs 6ocoDi€reil in tho ldn8nage of ihe ForLd. Wo shr[ dis()N som lroblsm of ihtu 0]T€ tn &cton 2.

A.theory or tho sor!hol6!i€1 conPekncolsrio.mnc inbr f!.6 should bs ut jn ths Pro€ modo (cr. (2)) ono pmlitablo scy oldsisrirs !!o@ nodob b

A conput r aodel hs ilc bmefit or '.lloviDs oxhnsiF lql'rina teBiina bolh or rhs Elrtios bstmor tho jndiYidu'l p.rb 3nd or .ha g€r"nl.oedrgo orlho Dod"l.Tbb a *"rria iri s rouoF g fFo inpdbri objetive aE to b6 &I!ered:

{3) Tho nodel shourd e.ont for ths vholo.o&

(4) The nodel shodd bo csprblo of ulLyTing

ThAo &o EiDibd Eqniomonts for nodeh pulporring 1o dediba tho linguistic khF hoe ol natiYs spea.koB lr lron

"n .Mcni tutorontu iheoria strire to ns6t th@ sbndddr' on tho mn- hry, ii is connon lreii@ to ilsigl ftsria bscd on sd l no.prrobeicar snd lexidr sdrssts. But dr la! ftom fmsmcnt3 b vhoL6 norpholosis dnd ls:icom jd noi quoriiiolit alon6 rf ! i.irl ilsdiprion .on bss hunibedr ol norrho(phono)logi.at n,l* and 6n. dr ihoumds of lgxiet mi e. in&'dim ?ilab &a likely io occr ,hst so difiiculi or impeihlo to 3pot by nos Irn,n iNp€ction. Sd6, iDploment€d .onlubr nodob olre! godd nothodolosicd help by pointins our umticipated inhrriiom.

s u c h h ' i n g & d r b . l ' r l g s i n n d i . ' d P l r u " d l 6 1 i 3 s n r i 4 suh.qu6!! aliing, ot . h shod, 6nput r iodela givo en cflb.iiYc opporiuiry ol suihizins ths n tn t rdu ol nmgulgc Gmn' nrr Md lsrrons ar Dor ls io elo-enru of ruls rnd "1F € Tho snob ccrtuintt i6 nors thm ihe !8un ' of jt3 p3rt3. In 6u.h

nodcli.s, ndhodologi.sl tsfing m,y Inve dratic iheoEii.a.r Ih oi&r b b€ li.guhdcsl]y ini.ruting, ihe 3peificafion (rrd, oprimly, oyon tbo indsncntation) of, conput r nodel glonlil

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ls .lMry smo.r' jo !o 4ry{ tj sxGr.c Md rst(ho dguq,6 .om.dorar'od. Or | ,o oi e h1 d,

pro8rmni.8 longuesB md m.hino rclibinru my 6oern6

emnins fou. vo.d recogniiidn nodc& rolevdr to our gu.nl ,oric

&nil shoa illen to bs lForogi.alb eDoFhnf jnoxpti.ii or jrcNry.

In ldrti{lm, tlEir noiiom or qo!d, no.lhotoSr and laxi.on iun on' b be unrbl" b s oun pr sbtr ror t.o.d.riogij,lon jD northologioily cohplex lansuge6 6uch s linnbh.

scciion 3 pro!@6 i gonenl rw.t4,t ,kdd ior voril-forn ftognitio &.d pmdmiion (Kose\MxM 1033o,l). Tho modol iori€B of a liosusu"atj Dor !rr.d torDl[am Ior aip@ins pqw'qs morrho,pbo. olog. tr ,1o d,o.oto"h,t rs lari-i€ in rletion 6 tsli.ol entrie ud suf@ stliies. The rFo-to,ol nodsl tu also lut lorir a r hypoibsis cr hos norphotdimt ecN a&J bo sm a r plb.* or 'ar,.t4 z ,"1!?rt. Tho nod6t iB jnplo nsnt d m e mnlut . prog.sm bs.d on (i) a lexi@n repr4or.d N

! si of linleil trcB, Dd (ii) ru\6 u smln titoit.4kt dotatd usdd in pd-da.fh6 ettj.lJts of.he uod4 ss\oFi b) rpptj -g jf to ths wlols Iinhbl nordol%y snd lexion. Iis do*.li.Fisiic .ovdsso qnnor b€ sv'ru,ted in thft !ap€r. wo rcsr io ibo al!b- cario8 to xrutish, Fn.\ J'psneo, sna Rlenim disd$s,n rho pspe4 in Kdm.Mn 0933, ed.). work i6 in !ros@ on Ambiq rlodu Geot, old crwh sltrvonic, potisL, r;d Awsdtuh,

sccrior 4 olTes sono concluding remerts.

sc@dl l)sJcholihgni8ijc nod.b of word-rcoedrion l&yo Deb

!rop6sd. Em vs ehDins lou such nodeL concsnrnring on hos ihof, isrt norpholoey. TbFs bly nai y on Erglsh dorr, rrs6 of onmn (o.c. 1060), roMEE (re76), md nM-!r@r md Tre (o€. r0s0), and ono or Serbo.fioetiD (LIRB, G'oorr- nr6, KosI6, &il TGEY 1930). In [srficuls, vs *an s h6 ih@ modeb @rd rmdnr foryoril ftcopjiion h Fii,ish, qrich js & ndphologiBny doninrbd, &ni agghlinoriyc, t&lrry gyntheric ,u8usc. linnish nonin pfdigm have ioudtt rso co's fdEs .orrlinins er"ous ioDbir,'ons o.1umhs. es rd toNNi0a sufiix6, Ekh ,oiinal lexono nay addjfionoly ha'e r,350 dhc

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sradja@lic clitJcizd lortu. Vob!.I plRdistu 'onbin sno 3m loF ro;m, i o, rinit€ lorm iDflc.hd for t n6o' ned, ond !do' dil non lidts inlinitiB Mil I'r!i.ip]€. VerlE also hev L'!s

disiinct clticied ldm (iloFndjng nPon .o 1,"'p"'n r'lro"'on rnJ oaneaLiol €

\gomFmniuo' rbLo -s 'o @ dE ribs bop rl' le^ion ia r * * d - ; e b , - o q " j i " . , i " b o P o r r " ' s m r d " b a i s " n ihe i.od si;^! ,'" , ."no'v -p e-*,:""

" tr" .-""t ls:ico'. Io;rot's (1060) d@iul roedgd Dodd @un6 tL&t tuh word in ihe nan al lexicon hs r .or6ponding spiphonohend l@o-sn pbi I 'F 'f's'h"vo u!& n s p'@"n Balondsa\c-il

* - , . i o o " l - " - . , t i a ^ * u o n s D n h o s o g m t F 6 r r h

;".1 ;'"b in" **-*-

"r "-bin poperiio6 in ths ibpnt when

" qjii.al ibBtold i6 6rp*.d1ry tho .dnt€r, ihe rod con4lond' us io ibal locosoh N r(og'dz.n

Ths lMsm Eodsl hs 6senrl b rc.d n ;' 0.

" o*"d *

" rsalo ooN phqe ps drg --gLi";, s"*"1 bgor s -rr be si'ulh o s't &iiiebd The dodot aboD-o!id"sa m'rd idi,"!'-hr.on d ib6 $str E ^d

b"uicv orr,;r'!

"o Jmborri'lr rap'dlv -metuzod: _Lan ."^"* L"* -.p.,,1*y t.. rvc\old lavsls Thso iogogons --q.'

" t e- p-p i r.*

", a Lt.*bJ lB li! ir" t mo b lF ''ls'" i"d

|llsn Jo ibe logoeens of unJftqusi Tod

illsls Wlw^ a-d wN lrr73) lreo nod somo $un B sl-*6 i$ lo$ n ood l de no1 tu:o '(r ' prili"l:on6 "g'

"b-"." *;;'j-

"tr " nod otr po n' of vicq 'he lososm modol lrs' r,rd€ned,l D'obl"n n ri sd o b rLe nd io' "EGd Nosror r'063r rd6 lio loeog@ b us morpl snj ir uru-6

T t ' r u s g s k d r b r ' U ' n r 4 k d rorm of a vord dfet th6 @nc logoeon M6on therobv mjcct8 rM rrll Lili.ng E pdnss 'FLB "f BomFm@T l0s3')

Fo'di'! ro qhi h ^ srfro qord lorm r- niI'idda "nl' ch tnd lexim. But ibora iemi, iho !rcbloN of hov, pieha\' iha noDhatu. dm'i'i.d oo uls p trt, ud qh!' ib hu^trI "lm

$ ; 1""

"

-

"c bEo Io a, Mm or ls:on"l rppios iliirsrc 'l inllo!.omL ldmonb ons loPasn 6tui'v u eol6 r-oesin6 'hlrbEbbssp.Uedoutsr?hiIt TLorFo geFl 6odsl outUn'd in ser:o1 3 's r rropo al lor 'b" sF! M ol rtis moaho oS' d

(7)

Aftol,rins ro toBrxB s 0070) @rtr Eoid of mr.t.!&osuo!, 'h" burk or to be oD u oc,r - "d B r @t* tr, r. Lad I on,

,e.at @3s tlLr org.. .ins 4ords o|

o - r i o ! n h i , , i p \ o l o t o c i l t 1 " d ( i i , s L , i a . d . F , , " . , lroportie. Th6 onby for o vod in rh6 nsbr file is e.ed b J t D d i

" r " o . r y f o . ' b r , @ , d . . , . 6 r p p r o n . . . t s os,,ol"d f o. foo s& tu\ or rLo ps.iobotu r ro is,dninrbd

"h.1. s;ko.6 net h i3 obbined. All pdiptor rilo ontris hlvo point€B thlt sB Eed io reN iL6 rpprcprtub onrry in fbo lMbr filo. an inno*rnr fsdw ortho &mh eodel h rhdftho ldirhnsl giirjq ,€ ;@!ed n r L i n , e , i i , B r a s ; i J * . , d€ nd' - ttuq.oD.r o.d6r. Tr,us, ,ho ss ! modc , .;rnE ror

op.rFq o. J s ; F i" b @of orts. dodsos.rh !h, F n 6 bsuB, u 0od6r oIf,rot.3 qiih hisho, ihet,otdr

q o 4 E R 5 nods b dgbrrrLlo i , m g , r d b . E s d i t , r r M d q , r bolt d uo aodo or pr $Dj ,(t ]rlgler utboN a d \\lac 1073). ln ddifior, we olid.rye rhsi , to, sutGrs |!om northo_

qical qgroms_dbd' of."drbo sd 1.1d.h1, uoarcl,c togusd, Do& Br'i"or'troN,ER s6m ro IHtr l.fr./o/m o 1.t.e.,, rord rora Oypa) is l*ic ly 3roea 'nd e.eed in itr6 r.$hion dd nbld 1borc. Fo4 m rh* ! r trooon^n! orrp fu Lb, ls

I r . a l r . i l 1 g x 1 s c s . , h B E . S [ . h . I L R h l -.nal. rcq.bls

, q r t 6 $ a s h d . s o f 6 e o , 6

I:$ o11d{ l s 'r L'otr ir - o.o.oroei.ru, r, h r. cus,* ,iro l i m , t , d . I r _ a r5 0 n o d "€ 1nd fh6 360 FfbaL parcdigm doDbeE (of sl] nouns lnd vcrbs, ra.

6!eciiv6ly) @uld bo indolandcDr lgxiat onh,je. tisi. rhb woutd anount to ir$ ehroso clain ihor uE Ti.nislj lsxi..n js hundrcdr ot tmos hgo! thM ,hd Enelilh ono. srord, rhsE Fould b6 !u , o . q n , n 3 . 'o u n r o r b o q b r a D g

udmtonding and prodmjns form6 or ns- words ilEy vo rd b " . 'd h " f o r . o F q o d h e F b .

D b n t l r g n 6 ' r i s ^ d s o , i r c a l r 6 o B f o , m s . a , , r q o L t d impry 3bfl.6 sD6 3-0 fo"@ ur

budf,n oI rhds r'6 ito.r b b ""d,r su s.a soo fo G tuuld bs ghelco inhelibnr€ i! rho loxi.on: n6mr hsrd aDd novof nsed tn Blsch lmduction Eor€, ft &cru to u th.r rhe burdon ol oof r4t3 viih rhe supporr.B of FLE.

A pa,l.- brpod,Gs is b p@ u rb on}' a r' #1o . do1 nd . s

(8)

uDon rL i J"'io.r. @, ' '.r o/,r% (nlxiDAur t'e: t belop) ' ; h " h * d r l d . - L ; r , i 6 r ' ! . d d t o n r l , s ' . o B r ' o n o r t o r d ' lod6 nNt lro t en to hrlo u addiiiomL stlge of ',.pllorr?, pdrehf. Th; invol*6 @gnuisiion of stens Dd ondings, a Bo!

6 lexicsl a.csB by ncre .onpld neclmistu ilm noro &iiv&tion or bsogem o. nohbrs fioD ieadJ nado llgrbhda,l filo olendb to n6ter fi,o oLllnts. Our st2.ific lrolosd sjll l* @uined in

Thh, yrolb.sis o'di4s bo.

" o a r.ould b' { d' iseo drfii r flcr ,n s?o b.aaa '\' Lnlli"h r'd l'il rh m" tol kxi om Elanrurr dr rs 4i&s c'de esrl,o'o rl n i' L" le) o' o in m o r l l , o o g j a n d s J n k r r T h s m , ' d s o n i b 6 o n l ' ' o n

' c ms, ill*i on tL{ or l i"

sone ]j6bd sord.fon!, viz. illc fte'$ent ons ihoi dt in coEt!

S.ne for@ snonld bo dhjbtr|d i. ihe sruddd laBinohv arqunent. Nob il[i ilonss's nodel would mtdl I lrolifdirion of enbils nr il,s lrnDish l6xicor. All sord fons vodd bs lbd lou tin6, onco in rhe rcter lile rna ihrice in rho pniph.rel tiles, inplyjns th.u iha linnjsh ls:icon G ilrrsllE or eren hn8 or thousM& or iina lsxser ihu ihc lnglbh one:

Ol d$q Fs do no! luDoft to blae rrlBili.il tn6 bgogsn or itro s.tirc e$ch nodels by .u nctly bnonon*linguistic renDr8 lYe js, cliin thaf &nygere fieol: olloxical res nNi lor o o ' r s r n o n l o l n j r ' p ' o 6 o - m . t u r i n s L d n o n n r r ' d

'xj on. TlJs de6 noi prc'luds spurio sro rgo or i d d _4 lccEs to tho nosr lrequent toid lorn

N*t conside ,M-Wlmn end TtrR E (e€ 1930, rosr) .,i', n dd ol vorihRogriiion ('lco d ltrBDN_\vlmn &nd Wrrd rg?s). Thi! is e ilire.r rc(s nodsl sticsing iho Tarr'4 eantl.l, battn-t| pad&ins .t Pnrdure ,nd ncmi.g FLi.h tuo siB duo otbntior to to! doM effecto. TIe ohort nodsl ha o cselul glpeincnt&l lndsrliming tith

clcany 6uJrNns ihsi oftho losoS€n and er(h rod"ls

S r o l u w o ' o s s ' 6 o ' m a l l J ' . o g r r F d w l 6 m r J b r : d r a h r ' r s "

*o;dn conpahble *iih rbo @nai ensory iryui. ThiE lre6uPp(rg a peal^l pm *ig srsFd wd ft rU or rbo n rr,l sr of eqd qndjd!@ .,ibs rl6 L"siJ nds o' rb€,opur rm aiDulh.m 3ly clrlsFd,d lbei! oDpa'.b i'y q 'b rltr pn' G.r o(c s i ' certsi contdt. Tlix et is srsnd t a tha wd-iairial @hd

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Accoriting to rllsr WEoN and Ttur (t$r: 3z), uo pro.sing ByBton iB nrdo l! or !'d larg6 smy ot conptrbiioaaly y t e s F . o s . i o n , 1 s e ' 6 . F ! h . p @ . b b , - r a { i . o @ 1 € p o , d 1 s

(o, Do,r smo) :n ,h" mslbt lo$on". wir!

dEoing $ 604 L pur D .co trstlNr, oho', iJ bl,at bp.doa"

!.rUJ cjr nE.R 0ddo!h,u-llJ thm EiU he only ono mn,I&i€ reeinnig {hercby ihd jnpu! turd

Dspft€ iis c'rofll ioreuhlion ona i€ri.g, rllo oohor nodsl siil Bdm lo h o Lssros no-pboog.q r-oblom @ rbo toqoroJ sDd a"f " nodols. No eo.r sop .f , prcoGata ti,,, ,o ou ;;bdso, bssn tuds ro' rhd r\o rqr'40rd skndr ro. ir -h" "rpreon

" p d d F o g n j - i o 1 , r o r d r t . r ' r t " , h , m € a I a t o r e ; . 6 d

"

(bm foru? st€ml yor'r-ro!tu1). _45 *on abovs, ihe m inportant pbblom Ehd o.s ium ro turpMlogiceny .oh!t6x Irnsuas*. }INLEtr-wbor sn'1 $r$ Oe?Br 50) ugner rLd nmh of iho prccsing etiviry is lo.sbd jn il]e bncon itsd4

&d ct 3&h rudory elemenf b a @nprtliiomtly siivo prc.4 ing orliiy. In rDt, quilo difforcnt nodob ss lriv€d si d6lendiq lpor how ino Pleci!€ rrim of rhe mndry oloDents h exDli.&!4.

rlle neirdr. nodot pnr todh in $dion 3 uggets ;e€nebl lan8,ag" '&osd nr slul:o1 b rb"so p-obtod rbiL N i, harnony ei'll iI[ baic proFrii€ of rhe mhofr modsl and, &i rn6 3mo tinc, evoi{b ihe E6le* prottsbrion ot leiic&l ui 6,

It'&uJ, we cono io ,l$ .ardlie-.Dt, n dd of l@tuB, 0100!@6, Ko$d, and TuBny Oo3o). This is , iodsL oi iho intenrl rep@ntatiom of S.rba.Codim nolm Dd is rhssroro hdny Bbwd to ihe rrffint tolic. Sdrbo Cr@fian hs 6*en csB dil thNby fouiegn .oc folm in bonina.l @rsdism. Ll&Mu

& ,r di"tus .hro pN brs Dod6b d i 6 r;r,r rcp,8o b-ios of inflsck,l houm. Tho inilsp.ndonr4nrrie nodal rdrs o[ Lltu (cr tho

"bove di{u*ion), Ehils tho ilc eafion nodst pGrut k onc, pd)olrly ihs noun's &o! norlh.ms, s Lncat snily end ddire ihc ot|len Iy rules (abo ct M,$Kry (1e73) ud ordilrr g"n6 i e- nr | 61 Tr 6 sFU.b 6 rris tFo.t6,s .ombine fsatle of fho ot|lcB. Ir r.p@nis eeL s;Drii.dL ces of &

noun indsrsndenfh in rLo loxi@n, L& so orgonized fhar ih6 nonin&ti% Binedor enhy fmciions s ,u.Itu mne.dna ihs l6xano,6 fsquorcy ot o.cfsnco sLIe fho ED,iniru m6 d!6e.

rolariwry uniforn y 6 *rJi4 arcuhd ih6 nucts&

(10)

Tho ur.o,rsutu'r r G/cu! o rm 8lblllF^n'r:E hcndqh :€ rmrNoo k I'brid i' r S.

.* aiG mro- onong iho tun nodn&tjv6 ce3 ilslib .ms ddsbLo dirlom 'o fmq d t Ttix 3u3!sk lLll {n

- P @ b F d i n E o D d P h J e r h - r ' T W o * * . * O r ' , " ' * ' * . " - . l $

" q u { | l s h 1 t s F l L i @ O " h 6

- , t - a . , r , . . . - i - t ' * ; . g ' n r v s c o s b F n ' l t id o n r r " d nos nDidle thsh the noo rcninotiR

n ' o ; ' ;

" . * * ' i ' h , * r i s b r i q o s U i i o d l ) _ r l o t h r r ' -*: *'.,r -r'p,u*"- is b rdul b Dd \ idml on'r's r^r aI form. Thb mod"l rus n , lba saEs morTbolosrcd dtr 41 'E

... .-"ai""-*a

"t-. tL*, .

frbd b DG' i ab -nF6 td b I& ds or 'LoiD& oI md' for;rbat rl-s spqls bB nsr r'{rd o- @d lu{h"-m'o' Ef e or Lb6 nrr@gntti( "ols ra slPs ra 3€m)!( ssoc

" n i*,ra *"r*i , -* -'"tlr hrcs I o Plu'rl rorm lvht s;uLd such lortu lrDrden rho mmory il tbsv hero nsrc' h66n hedd and iho$ i. no odrnsv so for thsn?

Wo nor (D m 'o6 '!o bml dod"l ebl b oL"m a pF i"

hjloilrBh of norplolgliql lioeBing

Ttro iFo l.rtb cd.6mcd oB fhs loxicon md ' sting of chd- yb6 @Bbt.tns s rdf@ qo'Grcd allDss\:Gtr rs33r' t

Fe€ll!. lho ivoJ"lsl dodol sJP

i'-"iiu* r"*" * ' -t't;dthe I'M I d squera or .odsutno dP'Mnotri shp€ Ar ddt 'apdobgror s"orB rhs lqo.lorel Dolcl conrdta or ts

Ooo i! rbo i6ri oo tbtrh &fDB I

s l E i a s . T c 6 l d i d l @ 1 1 / _ { o 0 1 6 M s i t r h o d p 6 r ' a r t

*iL*r'.

"t ""* "t

tt" t"'+Lss rnd r'i'G Pad "'tbs --in""r"-1""1 'r dFmrr'@ T\6 socood 66ponodl r'alx fl tb d;dLe nn;{o@md ddphorhoDolog:ol altsmiiom

rru '

". L' *L J"a" a p I tni * t niled m't2t aI @d lan t@^itid t d votndrn Anat i? rbo ssdo lineubuc d4' ' pl oh

* i o " * * , " . , * t " ' * , " o d r o m F 0 g 1 6 d o a t r d d n "

". bi"" *. ,r'1," .- *; '"'ro'"r d'tsomnes b"r'oon P h' '

"J.r.-

:"*-' .." r d p{dldio' &i

obiodils b sn-eo (o som l6ml o!dBlipliol {b' e _'o@ir:oo

(11)

- n d p r c o . r b n d a . t r o m o . s s h t s d . o s , , . 2 ( s A p - o u r e . { . o q d t .d,un& rb I. u L.suL syro'ss, i, h ;isrEr,fury h p @ 1 u b t d - a d i a l s n r r r , o b < h e " h - 6 L 1 i r i o s.oD'vun.

l j n A r F r a l l , m r b t . b , m j . n . r @ * , . , l " f t , " / t . , , .

" r ; _ . ) i n l o , r . , . h o - e h d n a q . r r u b r 8 o n o r . , t r o r u m e .

_,e .qo e.t Dm I r. r geda,. Lngxag.iDdlendoD- -or ptrtd prcg.an qhi.h c$ rrjLizo dqoinijom of ndivjdua.t le.

. u D A u r : d , _ o , . \ s k d t o i -

" ! r r s m . 1 1 6 l o r n i 6 - . o . l - i i . , t o r i c

n n d cor4Fndonc. bersocn ihs tcn.d Dd ddac levejs

Tra ho.lovot nodel ras Leen nEri.ed Ly iho TIXFIN nodot of {adurA- {hjcrj G bacd ob tink.d ninjlglimns (KNrmn &

!r. 1031), 3hd bJ ihe lroryhogralhdhic eronr ot tt{y ,nd

of mDluratiomt linsualie, rhe .onlnhijonatty luccMful sepee, i i o , o r . r b n g u r 6 € . d o p a J M r p , o g r m , n d , o\io.dDolbo rogiat ds"!.ir*iom h ! novs|lv

A! abcady nored, ihs L!k of ro le:icon srarh in ihe rso byel : : d - s j m : ' s s ] g d % + , I

ro rii ng l6r..J anF.4, n doln 6 .!d

!n rrq6 .l,gtur'd hx.io Dorbotoglal .. mdo d"Dcibry d idioa.d; ,s. r.e

'rrk lsirtJ " ual. irarupr."or rtbr.

T U o ! . b ( . 1 . ! n . n m , J i . f o - i . , o m i I o t G p n " r o u v a r h w . r .

^o.br . d, opro e stsn dhmsios @ Farkd 11 ro torj on by [*ins tbo ejtumrhea * such kf. b€to{r.

Given r ldion L vith sly DuDber of o;hi€, rhe i*o_toyol Edd puno.rs r- onlr 'o -.oSDzssod pmd.!o eurh. ssbf -.

l h b l F o r d . d t u n - s L . i o . k L h d a b o ; s p d a t D @ ; m r 4 r o D @ "D , e * f t d , ' d E . y n m ,

" . , - ; r , , . i " . . o ^ 3podri.d om BNc br L !d rb, , tB, o l& lllra o, m,-r .11.

,os lftd3 opaor rbsrEo.jm.l @dt h,ebi bdr. Dboneq:c ( o r s r a l b " n i l 3 u r f r s r D ' q e u ' i o m s n d B b r c d o , h o i d o s i . s

(12)

sinpMied clasific&fion of norpholhonol€cal anil no.rhologi@l

(3)

lairlr uiDl on@smn! nodifiotiois: n@fly iuto;tic, i|fupaui, prcducrivs, aHpiionlN a.lrcnsrioir h€rmn

!}onolo8rony dmlr r.lated si.glo phom@ in pE- donin&tly donological m.tsta.

lupllstion.lil€ unnrtu,l sibh,!i.E: arbodoru borrd eif}er longd €sqnan@ ol phosna d rdw@n pho'o logicdly nnmlrt il (or ilistmtly .olated) singla segnents.

Ttr@o dltehdtids ar oit€n opquo xnil unprcd.tivs.

oiry rho fini rylo i! {tee bed by rule in ih6 ,vo,lonel nde|

gDppl6tior-Dto slt€rn&iioDd.e stat€d 6 ldioal lrriehs oquiralenr to €t€n 66ft. Of coms, ihero .rc boddlino cms, h, cn rho wholo The tm lsft Eodol rojocis rbsbmt ldica,l rolMentatiG, ir ''dbBtmt'

lrAD for@ doputing in phorologiol .oapcitDn lran qh oeuB in E,r durl@ forN. E@sve., t])m *6 sae jrutm@ 'ho6 no?hophonotogi..t dkrn,tioro m lonca.Iy codsrt a no.lh@hononB (wlnch $€ noi c]rincd to be in tho n&tu or pbdol%] Bisrmort€r.TLoCi D"ml ed. oluoruruE s-norrlze tioE by ba'ibg on6 onirj ler loxcoc, &nd of nor incLudins d imts-@ ol norpboroono.osical al

tu 3bred by botL gsndsiitu phonolosy dd tha rro]swl nod6l.

Eoq6e6r. rbo mss ud rbsruri16 psgLug ol luos ri6i!

llr€uetioro of ry[e (!) my @cu jn quib conmon dnd pb- ducrirt influional tr!6. Ea. !I linni.h bouN uding in ,zr rg 3ubjsct !o ! Buppletior liks ,a.s dkn,iiol TLdo qor& eo borb mII)@ /b()l]Ndr of o r"*r Md lrod 'die. re. D doi Yltiona.r s'nlir6 such I -l,iu r 'inl*bihnt of, r&ffi 'liLo'). Tho detur 3t€@ @ opptefiYely Ebr.dl

nonilaliao gjnSula ho@

gsnirivs 3heura. ol ! hono

No b',urat rulG rsb de<liD. a 5 d o, o- d6ab qo d fu &l r, in such onvisnturt€. To reoid rd he rule fo. |Ibrforoib! F

(13)

que!.6 olplonoae in6 otho plrn6me, tho dJ&'iartu' ,vJarn& An alt6mdtion p.itm i!

lodcon cont ining ,ho leica.l Elr€dbrioB

in 'lMaiion partun j@r lilts tLe B,ltuiiYe wilhd, rdartug ih6n norpholhonolosr.i y. Tha dsoiptift fo@ of thtu oe!&

nisn is, of cor&, unr6hict d vhich Dighi h. lxDideoil 6 &!v- b&I. On ihs other hs , m6i ol th*o tlbmatim ao genninalv suFlstiyo o. nora or l*6 opoque snn&nta of disbli rud

An a,ltomaiicn lltiem i3 Nnany conaon b a vholo i!floxional

l : : , \ . " " "

Th6 $ot onfii@ ol iho nouns tuM 'lrons', indi@ hl@n h€tng', mil lyr&i*i 'orke ooni'in o'ly tho .omtlnt lri or rhs noninsti% sinsuld fom Ths v[iabl6 P,ri ,i ,hs md i3 iluot d, Not€ rbat ths tm lsYsl ldncon tydbm ne€{b onlt one inltm.6 ol each altunerion !trt16h, o.g. (a) An mu of ib

*ns hflo:id.l iypo ral.' ,! ,lz em ldm Tbis q{h,run .aeir6 a Asn$arizat'on jat s ruLd or olqaiiolE do, lu, on_

, "i'r,-W -a .p. n'.*uy it ." ^ !u r oI rl o isEm No et ohg a; idpid, onl{ -ofsanH by err or ooinbr' fo6lxictrl @o'i' natid ptt tu blird up &rw', al tt znd.ndir46 otra!I.' fiot€ crs6. Notico lov ,hi! combt6 viih bott n-!!, liIrm, lofti. rjgbt trl)€iDs, whi.h shodd be bsic &thibtrb ol ooiloh spirus to itst tbo 6d PrNes of Fcd fdn F.oSrit oo

L,l6rional " .d ns ds shd E qini., 4.ru ud 'dord b lrt thsled"rlodtse Ebh*'d qor& $n o y nrtuml dLmlim r6!sr to the {ids st of relgvMt o.ilines, os tor ths mu r@i

(14)

Jat a rcot entrie Dy Erd io oniling Dihilsli@a, tho ont id for sddn$ mt ds b fulhr Dinirsli oc.Tlubrb6beloni€o ued lo ile€oi])hg norlhoimric 6r.nciD wiihin i!6 rancoh 3$tom. limbh nonns l1l% &ppro:iD&t ly ihe following drodua:

(r)

-h

ll*

Ths Brsqcs Eshanb6 conbinoil riCh rhs a.ltsndtion Foitom8 lropGB , a.lurio! io rhs problsD ol Lof !. mp@nt inflo.r€d for@ in tho loxicol Ar ropNtoiuy not€dr fh@ do & rubd of

@oB for not e.o!ii4 tho }!U UBting Eynolheis. On ths oihs.

l u d . 3 B d d , - d g 6 1 @ r i e " t M . i 6 l r b r p . s s d n . h 6 p , e N b g Doilo pici@ nr6 deriGrion of Do.phodronologicar slkhofiom s in olying ruls npplic&tioN ihs oDi.logicd storN ol wlioh sE,rns In r.dBo, a,I infl&t€il fo!tu ao in the itu.lo'ol lonmn be&u6 rh6y .on bo rorisftd ed pDdu.sd lrjr folloeins rhe lointoB. on ihs orld hMd, ihsr€ is oDly 0!6 onh-y p€r loxeq,

&il tho alt miior !&tt.m md ondinss as 6h&!d bJ oihsf

(15)

N,trsl (norpho)phonologlcd yriotiotu ro d6lt Fjlh by tbo ru]s mnponenr ibplonclt€d u finib shb autoD,i, (t b€loF).

Xven hero ihm i. m or.crivo Bt3p by st p !rc(*ing involv.d, dil no lrodictiontu ndda thai fo@s rith miutul mdrlholhonolos- i@l albmiiom 3hdld ho ha'id to pr@*.Tho tFo.lwol nodol js tLE intmodiot b6if,en ihs Fm !tuitig St?oih@iE s&I rhs gsnorltivo DorbotioEl E}?oiheis.

For fha p!rp@! ollingtristic deoip,ion, th6 kncoD8 ss givsn c li.t6 of 6Dhia- Tho (hjgNy sinpliied) Bubhnon containing Iidial {oril rcot8 i3 in t}js fore&t:

(e) (s)

,!.ru /s "cl'ip N';

lo! /s "s1N N"i ftn/s lul N";

Sono lqoD6 do rep&sMbd €inply by il6ir noDinrtift sbm in oriLnory e8mlbL forn, othm by rhs i.ya.hni ldt or ihs sbm (0.g. re) fo ovod by a pointtl to s slt€mation P8it m (o.g.

rd/s) which, in im, tu a enilor.on.

A &ial listins of & lqi.on cs b6 irdoforned hlo ! !@ shuc tw ('bich h, in t8.t, 6ed by ilo Midd conruta !iogBD).

A lettor t@ congiEio ol mdB coDs.t€d witlr bEnchB bbsled

A leitd tes litc (0) Ia cotuh Isnofi.ial pbp. i6 G tr nodel or vora-foh Eogniiion, Rciii€Yirg r rom dos not (',iSdJicutly) dsp€na or ino nunbor or bnca.l uhiA il lhs leicon. Erch eg- ncnt ol i[c in?ut wdfdh 6n b. prccsed siill o bounded Momt ol ofiol jut by hly*ing a bluch in ihc tre. Lilt3 Ned not be erio,Iy 6anchrd (o in IoNrBs etivo s6&! noilel).

(16)

ldthef, fo.E ore ihplicidy relrtoved. Ito l6itu iR id in Ed m@pondonco vith M^Eur wEon snrt Trat B .ohod hoilol.

Such r tEs Dy, in r*i, Ls $m a ono ral of explic&fing lbv c turd.ilitj8l cohoit dieintuhs a a functid of continuou E€

nenf idontifioiion. llo nor6 branch6 ihai l''ft b lo f49m.d bsrorc uniquo idon fi@tion i! mhisrd, ih6 gr4t* b tho ro- spsdils cohot .nd ih6 eoE liDa sloun bs rcquircd ror reog-

I . o r q o l o e o l m o d 6 r p o - u l 8 B a l o s , r t L f e " l d " n - i l b J o n , , s rd llointsB.and ! surtm loeol dd'ned br lho*Dl ors rphon."

clr&!oF. Th6o two leyeb aE iliEdly .oDp,rd by tho tule.

Ttra, no nibrnedlai. Iovcb o. 6bga 's:isi", ovd in lrincida.

-4)

Iakd ind sulfn.o Bpresontafiom $o noi alfuts ideniical. Rula chcck for Fdiited o! lcquiftd

fprcenialions, rnd tl'et' oleBb in lanrkr Dmh rule sbbs r .ori&in constnn,t for ile cone?ondofto tctmer tho ,so lovcb.

A .oli8in l.xical mprdcnidior ha a ccliain Budtrco forn e its n,lizrtion, a ricc yc6r, Ehfl &U p. ineni.or€podene sret€d by the ruls &re stbfied. Thus, tho bai. ro16 or iho rul6 B mr t rhmfolh ono !eP@n6

in slsr rer,fion iha r$rc@nrliions nur bs.

The 8pccia.l .[s.kine nrius of rho two lom] lule hcens fhri rho r s mnpoNnr N su.I iB tundteat nd, bnr ir .,n la ued bidir@- The toxicrl rcllenbiioB comtt of phonone, norlhopho nde, and norplrlogi.sl f8ini.s. ForiurB are ueil for .ncoding gohi&fiml infornorior 3trch a juNillm o! rhe prucne ol cstuin cll:g olcnitn$ oryhophonrme turqsn0 ono4cgmont xrb.nriiom which nc€d lexi.al hrking. Ie&rdes 6r@!ond to sulle zroi norlhophondne b

comidd ih6 lonovihg ssnpla. Tl$ Iimtuh noD ,at ?lN' )re,ons8 t ilB ndr .onmo. md producriyc fype of noum odi.g n' !. Th6 lexicd repmntdion of rho lartitir dunl .oeisi6 ofihe tun lad, !l'e p]u.!l norrhene J, ,hd drs pariiiivs ending -4.

(17)

h ihe tsols%l ftuneFort iho lexi.d Fpl@nitrfion l6il iu Firbn sboY6 tho durfes lcn 'le.ic:

(rr) tuncal mlFehi,iion: ltsiIA Surfeo $lE@ntotionr r!ssj,

This @nhgu,tion o ibit6 rhreo @rynophonolq;cd r,li€miioB, aI @Bidsrsd r. le of ths nmqPlctiYo typ6:

(rr) S:t€n fin&l i js rsal'ed e. beforo tho oui$s llur&l nc$o- thomDo I, €chctutu.auJ:

(13) Ih6 plud Eorpnophdeto t k rs,lizsd s i bet@n drr€

rcvols, tohon"ticnJY:

(14) Tho lditirt (liks othor ondin$) i! Eulrj&i to voscl hu' nony. g6F, , lgicsl dohilhon6ns ! i3 lGtnlet€d vbicb i3 realizcd s a or a doding io 8bD hmony, scbonatica,lly:

6) 6"trv 6

Twole'ol rulc€ dry $Gr boih 1o lsliol ed sEf@ rspEsoit"' iion€, Alt hofid. my to linled io Mh oiher, sg @fton Ftenjinal ., d, a vovok m E&lizcd s 610 in rsnr of fie dEsL /, Fh.roby iL6l"tkr is roliBd a t.

lor linglistic purp@ s s!€ciol tro.l6vel nls fo.nr[sn jx Ed il ei0ing norphologrcal il*ripiroE. fts nlB mropoding to or,u) u6 oxpwd a:

( 1 5 ) l - I

(ro) . i*n-n

(u) l =vb (-it"-

O J 6-

"-3-.

(18)

Iub (rq h spelleil oui a the lexicdl lhonom i h r*lizod s &

surfoco . if ond only if it ocdE in fent of rho dur&l l'. l,ure (r0) is Ead simildLy: "1Is aoDlrphonsno I tu &dlized s j ir and onb irft ecr bsiasn 3ritrco vow.rr". Rnb ot, on rho oiher hmd, sirts ibsi jl *o layo a condpondon@ i th.n tn6B DBt ba a prcccdins beL turol aith ro inid*ning rront eoRsl" (but ,h6B iry bo oihd rontaiiolglor .4 i, ibis mrironnot).

Thm m 11,16 irls of iFo.lswl nia .omponding to rheo oloi"roft (t ie,, (ii) "€, md (iii) "€'. rho ruls i|s (i) Fnh '+' 8ili$ rhor il ,o hem 3n ocmnence of ihe lolr rmd corl€

sFondence ?eir, it nNt bo in fho .on!ox! giyen bJ ihe right hmd B l s o r r 6 . - o . T b 6 - . ' 6 ' r ! . ( i i ) { n \ o ! " r b " 4 - s E h t b r t ' J t r r&yo a mrBpondsns pair vftl] irs sms hncd s3n6ni a in ihe Ioft hDd 3ido ol iho Db ma ii o.cuB h rl1o cdnt :t giver i! ih€

right ldnd 3ido, il€n iho au.fae Eoltafion of tbd dlrmh nay onlt b6 tho ono giroi in tho tu16. Th6l&! i]?e ol nl6 Fi)virh th6olstof"€ i 6 ihe nod .onnob. li .onlrins the offocts of,ho pr€yiou8 chs, ila delhing ile nscs$t Md sufii.ieni eblimn.

DeDt€ lo. mra!on'1on.B.

3ingl6 tFo Lfeot rutd r,- rousb\ a ooF-Ll G 3i,616 ruts ot g€neratiye phondlogJ, bu! iho iso lml tu16 @nponont a ! rhole i! l@ r@srful duo 1o ths lic! or rtrls ordeing rRlri.tions. Th6 3ulticicnr d*.d!ii!s Fowd is &chiNed lry irtriing nonnctua.l

&ltomatioN s lslic rlt€mltion pait rN. fl)isis mt a dofec! of the nlo iormrli8E, bui &thu d eoF .onshdne'l inloryrctltior of Th6 Bignjfi.b6 of th6 iM]aval DodsL ro. PsycboLibgdiliie sjna rmn trrs ?adt r ,/ tdJdet tute: unh fiLae @ tutu.

linit s|8b , .mtu uo bom i. be Dnons tho ajnllcat lomol dorjc6. They aE &tiruiiyo bo.aue ih6y do @heptud,lr Bimple

$d fGr in olentjon. Iurlh6rDoE, ilsy m s'tuivr.lsni io gqftrl otbs. ro n8li6tu tlo -sg'nr' g lllrmft snd simFls als, r'oni

1'ruk A -bo,. ! d6 3m tsq u otrkolc, pars of s"Dg claim alront nsuai trossing, jt h nc plN6iblo to claih th&r neulol notEorks &ro obla to pgrfdn ihe eh6 b€k6 4 re€ondbly r t " d I : k t u b r u b i r L . ' h . . ' . . , i n 6 e s n u 3 u y . r i . _ r \ s y sinnrrto ihe Eniiing nech8ntun or gononlivo lhonology.

Ino.de b s bo{rinib shbautonata c&nba u.d for deribing norllolhoml%ical dtd.afioro, ro first 6n6iNci en luloerbn cheking Btriciion (rtl IDbd or liigle 3l'u€ceE, dr tuto.

(19)

net n.o@!b chmctlr pain, !n 'trbBta in tho d@cnption, and thjs oubn&id in lddjdlu, D$i eePi tho follding @$dcs of n,ils (pdtitift rlual and PetitiYe .i4nlf ol ldt 'glsisl:

o3)

On t]]s oil]d hud, gir! thd trnermiica.l folD uo to bs Epoit€d s suc[, tho ruiomtor Dui Ej.ci iho pot niitl rv!.lld corspoldenc* of vhich th6rd arc iBo. ston.find t hsi lot h salized c , in tho llscrco of plul I, tur nus0ir $mih uclslgsd bol@ this ?lurrl adins. C.ndder ihs ibr@bb ,nbmt n (r0).

Sbb r is iho inirhl shte. If the sntotutoh l@ive p'iB ctus.

ihon I o iit *in mndn in 6trt6 r (iho Eynbor=dsnor€s "ut oills pair'). R.mieins a !si. I clues a hssiiion to €tsto 3. 61otd r snil t ars final std€s (&nabd Ly donbls cimlc), i.o. jf fho ,uio- nlbn is in ono of lhen * tho € ol iho inlnt, iho 3ubmbr ecslb iho input Stlt€ 3, ho rdi i6 o ndnrihal 8bb, 8nd tuo utomston lho'ndbavo itherors ihe iryut 6mb ir ths input i3 mr b be Fjedr€d, u iho tura .h8racb prir ha llur&l I a its loxidl .ha{.td (vhic,\ js denobd by I), tho antonator Etnrm to sisio t.

Any oils. p ,TiU csM iho iryut to bo rcjocted in dus .o'lB b6.ow ihoD ir no aplsp &ta tmmition &e. ThB p&ri or ho ut meton @onpIxll4 tho only if p.ri of i]ls corepondono:

tho poir : i6 rl]ovod only if iN j! foloFed Ly lhe phrr 1.

Th6 emining stlto 2 i! nesded lor illo conmo 3fatonenr. rr 6bn finsL ldiaL ! is ro oroil ly plur&l I, *e nu.0 hdve ths corepondmco : Dd nothing bui c on ihs sDrfms. Tha, if vo cncounr$ ! .orrespo 6n@ of bnca.r i oihd ihM I (iheo a6

(20)

ddoi€d by i), i0 @6i not ]]o foloftd !y iI6 pln..l I Aryfiing ols€ E) Fiu Btm ih. utonato! b 3br. r'

The 6trr.n&t! for n 6 (16) md (I7) Ne equaly srmishiioretrd'

L t '

Suppca fh&t or lexicon is iho tu6 (9) ,nd ihot o. uls conponsn consisk of tho ih$.'ns did$ed ah.w Tho aduar E.ognitior of a 'ord'torh liks kr?i1{dld prmed mughly a foloB: uno Btrts *ith ths fint ssnont , ud rhe tuot nods ol rho |I@ Tho loaicon |Is is trsr*eil .nd peis omlliing ol han.h I'b6b and cor€ponding tlrfms ssenmk lrs occuoulated. Tt46 nut

{23)s)iho sulre coalonsnb forn gto'ing i.itial Pdt6 of ihe 'ord-lom 10 b6 initialzed,

b) ihe &utonat rcspt iho s$sn6 or p8iB.

In ibs F,i * plrrmd fron noilo to nodo md gcr Boquenc4 ol

L

elimi!,hd by tho !ul6 cui.m&t!, dnch sist lron (1, r, 1) md p$eed s fonom:

( 1 r r ) ( r r r ) 0 2 2 ) ( r rs

,! ih6 elhy is sncount &d ih tho |Ie, fbe ldich prcce& io th6 ldicon cf (I$ ondings, ih {hic[ tho brMch6 for I rnd ,1 aie

(21)

Iocat d. Not lroB iniliridull mle luionatl tolenb th6e v,ria' tidns sli.h &$ in ihe donain or oihor ,!iohab.

Th6 nle .onloneni * a vl'olc can Ic consi&red a hlo wsy fld bdiveen tne ,oxicrL rnd ihc su6.t rlrw.toiions Tho fjlt r 6IgIi\ "disbrt! rM im'gc of ihc rcprcmiaiior ccon ihongh ii.

Ii mal8 tho lcxi.d r.rr@nttrijdn blhind ih6 lllt f IeL ideniiml to tho sudre tupruonrdior in foni of it, a'd .orv.6clJ.

Th. tltq coulil, in ptinciFlg,l,a realized m M clcctricd.irDt (or lerhals .!or I a inodcl ol r nsurrt Nivolk) conFrinC tbe rorr*hrriionr. h 'od lom p'odnciio., .oq)!ii$n soulil nc condrajnins the surnrce rpr6e,i1iion and th$ leau'g rmn o y for ihe oncd dlil,,t In &cognirion, ilE filt€! v.'l]d I'i.h mcn lhrough u,c filbr look8 like il$ s[l&o mrr*onhton.

The Nivolk .nrloey b roloyui nr tlo y!$. l'irsi, nchvorls p*torn thcir lusks ui,rod r.?rnrial ?n.$init, Mntidll! ?;I^

tu tlod, atut L 'dt inbtudvna,drB r.opLo do, of .ouNo, prcduco and ldcivs vordr in ied iihe. ftrthormorc, tne letvork

^ . . l o j t l o ' n t u ' o " , l l

of ! loiicd *gnonf nry dopend

neighbouing *shent llnr noi on its lcximl shrpD.

The ivo level nodol hs b6r inploncrlcd a r comluer lmgnn vbich firsi reads in r dcciptior of a tcii.on sF@n (nI ihe sen€c cxlLicrbd &lort) ud tr 6dt of norpl,odonolosi.lr ruLs dsisncd s finilo 3(lt6 aut mir. u6ing ihs dc(ipiion, ffc

ogrrm .or boih i"ll2. and fltducs vord rorB. TIte sm. rin.

grisii. dacirtior is Ncd a snch ror both proesA

I. ordor io irtdltli ilD Prog n a tr modol, snc spek or conpnt r pr%r&G nri bo bricfl]. dj3cNed. A logical3ialoDaft defining ,lo, the rrogr&n d@ is a srail@Jton. ft inirodu.s r!

..n.erf,e nee*fy lor 361ihg hov th6 .uiput of tho proesn . i l r . u . o D ! u p m - ! m ' s r

f t a r . o n . I l c M b c , q n € b l ! . l o o i o E a F ' . a o f n E r i ' r insta.tiors in ! pogrenning lDgn€go. Eith.r sey, if js t&rd to

(22)

Tndo is, hoBqer, .n inbrnedjdto lsvel of interyrt&tion wlle$

@nt!d rllnosnbiioN od rhe ovenll sirubgy of ihe lsgrdn bdvs lpm dsfineil, bi'i dihoui .ommifnsnb to loa lovel pro gBmni.gdotsib.Thee tllEo q*ctsofihs pDgrun bgsthd wiih tbo notrholosicd dnil loxi.cL *nowled$ ol lhc langltrgo ner lcm

Tho sDeific&fion onil ths torn!.tsn c,n be intaflst d a r lingdj*ic 1L$; or ndpldosr. on the one hrnil, i! Is beh d*isncd 6 6Ns tho runciion ol "antonomo

" o m p . r r h s , . ' . r l s r l ! ! , s L o - l " \ o o - o e n s d , ' a . o D o I ' h 6 .si e*E or rbt Plp"' hs rded o"o1'o'isL l' !n i L's'r_'r .b"orJ rborc "omp-tsh"6 id Rro nu'6 _ sr' ' ' lh'orl or thB do-pLolos , kro\ hor ol lsng sg" u'sN B) i 3 M msrl ' n

r d , 4 . u r h a P , w o L d f l r ' s o ' m o r p h o % ! 4 ! s d ' b r b o s p " c n l . r : o n t ' o u a l b d " M t r d r _ i o 1 M o 4 o g i j i j m o L

abl6t 6aNs s 0 bBic rodel ol boih.

Two'lasol dsciptioDs of porrial,. lmgndBq dvoll on ihe 3'm thsreiiFl lorcl a ilrs spccifioiion

Tas indomsnidior nns in ral tins md "do6' Pn iho sFcificdion dscnb6. I[ sinrn e6 ths lreboviour ol hrguage ,i.* -'..*'t",.

"c .r't* somor?bt io gq'uir' spa onir"

lro(Effi. Tbs implemnbiion h Inglrv dspmdcnt upon jdr'

;ynq8'a or partictlar pmgnnning rrnsues &nd Dmnbs Tbs Dsdid inDlcEentation could lNitb bs inbrpi.ted s sn ind;ci mslostro Dodd or torprologica,l proesing Tho E- leeniaiion; and ls.sjng sfr'tueics m€ op.n to erbhs'l svrr

,/_ _1_ \

/ P i l t d \

/ L n d l d d d b i \

, / r \ \

(23)

uorion in tc.e of portcnrms omn, d.r6 fton .hild tDgurso r'lui3 r'oD, ud rh" I ko. Nob o@ o.s. "ups or rbs bnsr; so 'obrptuLb e iD rb6 -6.q0.\ no&t Tbor "oD" .bd. po6n ![o +eaksr ior 6040 roaon nicks rlo wcng rract Dpoh tu&ymins lno ftfsork. I,.eilioiioB m .rrrmrdble tron iho mr@k nod.l s io Fhaf}indr of Elj[€ do posiblo ortileb onB, bui we shdr nor Dunus thi8 topic nors.

In orJe b bo a "omptu\"s.qo p-ioroe1e @dol, rbs N'.'u ' D r . ' h . , / o n E o . t d a ' € b . l s . m 6 o D o L . n d d ( o n o p b i r . b a rcd pro.ss. Buf boing I prria.l inDloEenrarid it ned nor intorpmt ths rrgorilbro in dobir. It is sulficienr ia 61j@t ue conproxib. of rh6 stgoriihtu and ih6 mrm of rho pioesi,s te quired. If rho comFiciioE coulil in lrjncjrlo bs ,ro;sd by 6Eu rDib sbb rutonri& or Einplo elecirodo ci.cujts, rhoy arc sr le6r sidploo, ougb to bo uld.. Dodobotmd Do lboto,j,,lb-hanou..

OI, o 'mo. sa b3% mL shom rhb i,o b-.Le"16bur p. .Fd o .r oD6 lm4sorE {1e33) he Fnoirdlinsly djeseil how word- lora nishr be lxic&lty rep@nted, pdrricut&rly in iho rgh! of Nrihus l)gy.holinedstic ovi'16n.o aoD recogririob end po, duction t€is, 6IDs or ihe ronens, 3rhsja, ok, E; mi€s rh.i rL6s r 1 6 \ , r o n o o e d d . s r h o . o n t ) b a s r o r t u r r s b B d , E . r h i n r a o . i o J . a.l ond &.ivotioml for@ boing conpur.d o.line by ruto r@o DoriBrion,l EypoihBis). ts then 6ncbil6 fhar ihor€ is o!€

a.ltunriiv€ lefr, rhd all tisihg ltlTorh6i6 Fhicr i&.tr6 dl sord- form to tr&vs l6xi.rl lspruonidions ol rheir om.

The lait r conolusion s6otu lrseim. ,{s uguod sbovs, ful listi"s is not a !tuU6 albnoiivs in l&ngurga eordol%idry noB @altox rhen Enelish. we 6eo itB iro.lovel nodet 4 an i,1, nrtit . du.nathE b B Datiarrjondl ud !\ t Usring E lorh es*. lt rvoidr ihe undeBirnble conequo.B or borb. such s rbo nsbulou int€msdiat€ .tds* in deri*itom !y lequonriat iuto ,ppli.,rion, or rho lsdc'l ?rolifareiion d inflonondt forru ude ttuiing. !ui0bo.doB, ih6 rr@io rrcporii4 of ihs i@.towt nodol s mLh,cs, soodryTol%rrl oeqlgosk5 itodbJd s(,ipr,G of EoglBh. rr rs\, J.pa'€o. n.Ilrmrn. s. d sFo{Ls', rad rbor Jho m in Lardoly qih c,m - lieEs ot wo{.to.a ,s%nj, oo, D plrfic'fir, eiih ffsrxN,wlMn and Trhs cohorr nod6t,

T16 itu-lowl ooilol &ho giB a seotubto acconn, of hoe neF turdr sE int€gilted in tho inflono.at sysr€n bofL in child rln3usa

(24)

equisiiio, anil oduli equisiiro. of n6losj6tu. Ior t!6@

{iihout .&diBt no.phophonolqic&l altanttiors it tu mrna.IJ snongh to nonorib tho only, or thd dfrar, sbn a such lf tho pusiigm ontdns FlpplgtilstlT€ noinhophonologi.dr lrtsrn$

tid, tho loxi."] Epresentation ts ! fiuc {il rooi dE ' poirtd to fho elgvDt slbrmtior p&ftdr. TtD b oqriv'reni to Elrsnr- ins th6 ldens a

" et or stens (ct LDntn r$r)

Or 6ljB, various stEt€gi4 n&y bo i.Fke{t in selecting tho

?rA.r sion comtitnting !h6 ontrJ. Ons €frsctirt st.at By j3 b pick the nonindrivo drgule, &r leat ovisiomlly flrthornoB, rho poper d,ndnerion pattoD Cnfidionar chs)Dusi lre @iablisllsil To ihis snd, ils nsiwork s su.h is ollitile heb, ws corjoctuo that lhs l)lit ru ss ostlbliglrd by Pbcd!@ ortraneru to ths D4FCL,os.b) a'Tig'rdu4io1so'e 6!mrlarlj 31ru/utsd6 rn*

(ct BrrmRvolEs (1033) netdrule), or by d6fdt nreE o iludively esqDlsring lrcn ibo orNciN of l{noFn rorm xo.

snrl6, iftbe onl, aoq fo - ora t\msh oxo is

" s oDinu rirssi. gulsrbrtrrr.19,o ri,!d"laultruloDi".L"lalbaL ilIrm:B Dcbarged ihouel ihe infldio.. TheEly an onirJ i3 *tlbltube4 in the lxi.or tI d .otsir prih ihrongl ihc network

F,n!lly, in my ns s].il hd tls iqo-lavel no&l cope 'iih freqndcy erls.t€. C&n ir o.g. lEaici ihrt lrcqusDt $od-iorG ao Emsnizd noB mliily f}m niif.cquon! ons ! II@, ro jnElro u ddnitLdlr 6pedl,ii!6 notnpho viih 6ons superticial or€dibil- ity, In iho iFelovel franororl, frequ@cy of o@umnB v.nrd cdr€lnb 'iil nunld of hsversld .f & p$ti.!r'i pr nr tho netm.k. The Dore iinB &ny raih is hs@6d, rho "dopc"

;odd [o rho Imti.s (huna, mnort) t!@6, ilB ceier snd fstor dD tutua irsreEels of i!! I)"th, ond ths nom sbblo &nil 6!li6nr its ouf*drd aprdbr.s {ct iho d.logy b e fteqle ly @d Pib jn ' rorer), ft @@ bnpfiDg to dt€nd ibis noi3 oit Nuo- logica.l bsiro.k6 s *n bft ihis sould cotd.ly Is lrsmiN

Ailib* ol iho aftbon: Fr.d -&trlafu thd Eintu K@*tu mi DepdMt ol ewd bagaidit

' Ankutitg ol EdsinLi

EaI;t6*rtL I 11

SF.a010a E.bikt:i 10 (X;dnrn)

(25)

noEih lubrdltr co4ome, soin. 3 11.

' " t - @ . o - , - a t . t

ttudbtvt catqo@ o1 at$na

\{E[s'Doicilvollsc'

Md:9h", P.qdi4. rlh ri )t tL

P ] s 6 ' o i / | i ' .

t r ! - , r " ! i

o b F o d - P i . q . o l d r a . . ' . o ! o /

(26)

"€S;L"j?L*"3;'*l'TTf, i;J'ft"" *" **.- '

@otE@e.psb.,4,'dwa4edlu'.|'!''

"l#jffii-;*il;*. *"*

'lffi

i"djr*wv.e" ;:**s;'1i i ffi as"tfi*"

rb-n ry, c6 0trh6 0t Bqdoo

"*+jr"1,11*" lerd..*c oi., Ps&&,i!,

'ffi'3;*'jLil'; '-"*

Viittaukset

LIITTYVÄT TIEDOSTOT