The experimental results showed that there is a difference in the number of concepts extracted from the different test data. This can be attributed to the fact that the test data had different contents, from different courses. In addition, the test data were of different sizes. Another factor that contributes to the difference in the number of extracted concepts, varying between the different test data, is the writing styles used in the test data. Each test data had a different writing style used in delivering the contents.
6.5. DISCUSSION 49 It was observed that, comparably, when a higher threshold of ≥15 was used, more sensible concepts produced. This means that a larger number of sensible concepts lied above frequencies of ≥15. It was observed that a slightly lower threshold,>10 produced sensible compound concepts. We could explain these observations with the phrase: ”the more a concept appears in the text, the more relevant it is”. A higher threshold produced more sensible concepts. Based on the heuristics used, if concepts are significant in the given text material, the concepts have a tendency to occur frequently in the text. Other concepts in the text could occur, but less frequently. This could mean that the concepts could either be less significant or they are less inclusive concepts. More inclusive concepts occur frequently in a given text as they encompass general ideas in the text, therefore, mentioned frequently.
On the other hand, less inclusive concepts cover specific areas in a text, hence, occur less frequently in the text.
The results showed that a large number of extracted relations had frequencies of
≤ 3. A small number of extracted relations, which had frequencies of ≥ 3, were seen as sensible relations. As the extraction of potential relations between concepts relied on the extracted concepts, non-sensible concepts produced non-sensible rela-tions. As the direction of the relationship is not indicated by the ACMC, relations between concepts e.g. ’automaton’ and ’finite automaton’, and ’finite automaton’
and ’automaton’ are identified as one relationship.
It is important to note that the basic method used by the ACMC to extract concepts and relations was based on term occurrence. No syntactic analysis or auxiliary ontologies were used. The ACMC was not able to identify features such as equations, tables, formulas and algorithms. Due to this, the ACMC was not able to differentiate text in these features from the normal text in the text material. This could explain why the ACMC produced some non-sensible concepts and relations.
Here, we refer to concepts and relations that are not relevant to the text material as non-sensible. For instance, parts of equations, misspelt words, non-English words (as some texts contained Finnish words) and verbs were considered as non-sensible
In the implementation of ACMC, we defined compound concepts as two consecutive words. Therefore, ACMC is restricted to finding compound concepts that are only two words long. This results in extracting incomplete and therefore non-sensible compound concepts. For example, ACMC produced ’nondeterministic finite’ and
’finite automaton’ as a compound concept which should be in fact ’non-deterministic finite automaton’. Extraction of non-sensible concepts in turn resulted in the ex-traction of non-sensible relations, for example, a relation between ’nondeterministic finite’ and ’automaton’. In cases whereby, for instance, ’nondeterministic finite’ and
’finite automaton’ were extracted as having a relations, transitivity could be used as a heuristic to identify longer concepts, in this case ’nondeterministic finite automa-ton’. Other heuristics could be integrated into the ACMC. For instance, checking for concepts in headings; chapter and section headings, topic and introductory sen-tences of a paragraph and emphasized words. These considerations could produce better results.
Additional heuristics that could be used in finding relations that are more sensible could include checking for potential relations in topic sentences; as such, sentences briefly introduce the concepts to be discussed. The ACMC checks for relations between concepts in a single sentence. Potential relations could be checked for in whole paragraphs as well. Significance and weight of relations could be assigned such that, if relations appear between concepts in a sentence and within a paragraph, then this weighs more than, if the relations appeared between the concepts in a paragraph. The direction and names of the relations are not indicated by the ACMC. This functionality could be implemented and added into the ACMC as a future development.
There was an observable difference in the number of concepts extracted by the ACMC and the number of concepts counted from the manually constructed maps.
This difference can be attributed to the style used in constructing the concept maps.
While the ACMC used frequency of occurrence in identifying and extracting
con-6.5. DISCUSSION 51 cepts from the text, the manual constructed concept maps did not have a particular method used in its extraction of concepts and relations. In constructing the human constructed concept maps, we read and understood the text, therefore coming up with concepts and relations between the concepts in the test data provided. The sensible concepts extracted by the ACMC included general concepts only, as they occurred frequently, as compared to the less inclusive concepts. On the other hand, human constructed concepts maps included both general and less inclusive concepts, differentiated by its position in the map (we used a treelike/hierarchical map like structure, with the more general concepts at the top and less inclusive concepts at the bottom). A different approach from the one used by the ACMC was used to establish relations between concepts in the manually constructed concept maps.
We relied on our understanding of the text, to discover relations between concepts.
Some of the relations between the concepts were not found in the same sentence as the ACMC does. The ACMC extracted relations only if concepts appeared in the same sentence. From the results, a large number of the relations extracted by the ACMC was deemed non-sensible. This accounts for the difference in the results produced by the ACMC and the manual concept maps.
Chapter 7 Conclusions
In general, it is difficult for an individual to construct an effective concept map as the concept maps vary from one individual to another. The individual’s understanding and perspective of the subject concerned accounts for the variations of concept maps of the same subject. Automatic or semi-automatic construction of concept maps reduce this ”biasness” that might be caused by the individual in an attempt to create a ”good” concept map.
In this research, we have discussed several semi-automatic and fully automatics approaches for constructing concept maps. Semi-automatic construction of concept maps requires some assistance from the user to complete the concept map. This involves the tool retrieving information for the concept maps, suggesting concepts or relations for the user. In automatic construction of concept maps, the whole map is constructed automatically, with no assistance from the user.
In this thesis, we introduced a method for constructing concept maps automatically from text. The method selects concepts based on the frequency of terms in the text and their relations by the frequency of co-occurrence in the same sentence. Our experiments suggest that the method can select well relevant concepts and especially compound concepts, but the extraction of relevant relations would require further research.
DM book concept map produced by Leximancer
Figure A.1: Concept map for the DM book created by Leximancer.
Figure A.2: List of concepts from DM book extracted by Leximancer.
TFCS concept map produced by Leximancer
Figure B.1: Concept map for the TFCS created by Leximancer.
Figure B.2: List of concepts from TFCS extracted by Leximancer.
Scientific Writing concept map produced by Leximancer
Figure C.1: Concept map created for Scientific Writing material created by Leximancer.
Figure C.2: List of concepts from Scientific Writing material extracted by Leximancer.
Appendix D Stop words list
the of and to a in that is
he for it with as his on be
at by I this not are but from
have an they which one you were her
all she there would their we him been
has when who will more no if out
so said what up its about into than
them can only other new some time could
these two may then do first any my
now such like our over man me even
most made after also did many before must through back years where much your way well
down etc might how or x s r
p g e c b section z u
t o n m l k f d
h j q v w y too
There were a few additions to the top 100 stop words fromhttp://www.edict.com.
hk/TextAnalyser/wordlists.htm. Such additions included letters of the alphabet and a few words, for instance ”section”. These additions were made after making
65 several tests using the test material given. It was observed that the results contained single letters of the alphabets as concepts as they were used frequently in the text.
The text also contained words such as ”section”, ”chapter” and ”example”. These are among the latex commands used in the text.
Hand-made concept map from TFCS
Figure F.1: Hand-made concept map constructed from TFCS test data.
Hand-made concept map from Scientific writing material
Note: The figure shows part of the hand constructed concept map from the Scientific Writing material.
Figure G.1: Hand-made concept map constructed from Scientific writing test data.
Hand-made concept map from Data mining material
Note: The figure shows part of the hand constructed concept map from the Data mining material.
Figure H.1: Hand-made concept map constructed from Data mining test data.
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